I'm trying to dim a 12V LED lamp (LEDs specification here however schematics have the real values...) I've build for a video lighting application. My initial thought was to use a potentiometer but it seems that the power consumption of the lamp (7.56 W measured with a multimeter) is to high for a standard potentiometer. Unfortunately I can't found the specification of my Omeg 470 Ohm LIN.A potentiometer so I've tried it and now I think is burnt.
The lamp is for video lighting, I'm using a camera with a 30-60 fps so I don't know if a can use a Pulse-width modulation because I think it can cause a flickering effect in the video. Further more is for a radiometric experiment and I would like to have a stable output but answer for decent result are however welcome. What are the possible alternatives? Is true that:
Please note:I'm not interested in power consumption, because is not for standard lighting...EDIT: Answers involving Pulse-Width modulation are welcome if they works for this application
What about this: -
Alternatively, if you are stuck with the LEDs being soldered as they are, a regular buck regulator would be OK but I'd recommend a power supply of nominally 15V: -
You can adjust the device to produce a lower-than-12V output by using a pot in the feedback to FB - note that there are two resistors feeding FB at the moment to produce an output of 12V - if you scaled there ratios down to more-or-less suit the value of your pot in place of the 619k resistor it would work but always have a little bit of resistance in series i.e. if you had a 50k pot then leave 2k2 in series so that the output never gets directly connected to the FB pin. Note FB means feedback.
Here's the LT search page I used for this.
These LEDs should never used at 0.5 to 1A continuous or even past the absolute max power of 180mW. But 150mW may be ok for continuous used if adequate cooling is provided. 1A can only be used for very low duty cycles or 100us max.
Final edit Assume I meant 3 R's in schematic or choose one 3 Ohm part but 1/2W. Choose R's with Ohmmeter for best accuracy.
Efficiency = ~1.8*4/12= 60% , luminous intensity variation , accuracy depends on focus of LEDs in housing.
A much better choice of LED is SFH4525 rated at same 940 nmP , 10deg for 550 mW/sr @100 mA continuous in the same 5mm package with over 5x the efficacy at 1/10th of the current 1.8V max 1.5 V typ.
For power, DC constant current is best, which means if you have 12V only, you can use a 3 terminal regulator such as LM317 which has a minimum drop of 2.2V drop @1A. Thus depending on your max, min Vinput, you can choose suitable strings of 4 or 5 in series. Using 5 strings in parallel of 4 in series , or an array of 5P4S (parallel,serial) you need 500mA @ 4x 1.8V min. from the adjustable current mode of LM317 below.
Adding 0.1V min. drop to each string to prevent thermal runaway, this means each string has a 1 Ohm in series x 5strings with power dissipated only = 0.05W @ 0.5A
R adj I (mA). ===== ===== 2.5 500 5.0 250 10.0 125 20.0 62 ...
This might be done with fixed resistors or 2.5 Ohm + 10 Ohm Pot, wire wound ($) and added caps to stabilize regulator or a cheap pot with a NPN transistor in place of the WW pot. There are many other ways to do this depending on the accuracy you need.
Here is PWM regulator suitable for your LED array.
You may replace whole LED block including resistors with yours and it should work.
2N2222 transistor is rated at 0.8A. Your LED array is also about 0.8A.
A bit bigger transistor would be better, but 2N2222 shall not blow up at 0.8A in switching configuration like this. If it blow up you may replace it with BUZ11 or other N-channel MOSFET.
I found that schematics here, haven't tried it. If you get some flickering on video - you may increase switching frequency by changing capacitor values. If you take a look at NE555 documentation - there are some PWM examples and formulas for frequency.
I've read somewhere, that switching frequency for typical LED's shall not exceed 1-2kHz, because of LED capacitance.
A potentiometer is also called a variable resistor and rheostat. Those 100Ω ballast resistors and the potentiometer are the same as a "Resistive dimmer". They will not damage an led. They are the simplest way to control the current to a led segment.
Each of your 100Ω resistors are limiting current to ((12V - 1.35V - 1.35V) / 100Ω)) 93 mA and dissipating ~0.86W each (I hope they are 1W resistors, or they will heat up and fry quickly). Combined, that is 6.88W in heat for the resistors, and 744 mA. That's essentially a 12.5Ω load. Since the leds are pretty low forward voltage, and the resistors are burning a very large amount in comparison (2.7V vs 9.3V), you have plenty of headroom to change the resistance. Increasing the resistance lowers the current, which in turn dims the leds.
A single 10Ω 5W resistor will (roughly) halve the current (51mA) and brightness to each led, and since it is also taking up ~1/2 of the power, will help dissipate the heat nicely, as each of the 100Ω resistors will only be dissipating 0.44W instead of 0.86W. I saw 10Ω instead of 12.5Ω, as a 10Ω will be easier to find. You could use a 20Ω for 35mA to each led string. Or a 5Ω for 66mA each. Since leds are logrithmic, it's not an exact scaling of brightness.
Add a multi-throw switch, and you can chose between them.
The reason you fried your pot was that it couldn't handle your poorly designed panel. Frankly, you should have just stuck them all in series with a single resistor. 12V Source Voltage - 10.8V Forward Voltage (1.35 * 8) = 1.2V to drop. 1.2V / .093A = 12.9Ω. 1.2V * 0.093A = 0.111W. A single ~13Ω 1/4W resistor would have been perfect to set the upper limit and Most pots could handle a measly 1/4th~1/8 Watt.